International

Introduction and materials
This 'International' unit introduces students to one of the most successful international agreements ever made - the Antarctic Treaty.
Antarctic Treaty
The Antarctic Treaty was designed to provide an agreement for the future care and use of Antarctica, as well as avert territorial and other disputes. It encourages international cooperation in scientific research - it is an extraordinary agreement that was signed during the Cold War!
Sovereignty and territorial claims
In addition to Australia's Antarctic Territory, six other nations claim Antarctic territory. Some of these areas overlap.
International cooperation
Mutual assistance, cooperation in emergencies and free exchange of scientific information are key aspects of the way the Antarctic Treaty is applied in Antarctica. The Treaty encourages member nations to cooperate in Antarctic research in the interests of humanity.
Madrid Protocol
Australia supports environmental protection for Antarctica and was integral in the development of the Madrid Protocol, which sets forth a system of environmental protection.
Other nations' Antarctic programmes
Students can investigate the countries involved in Antarctic programmes, including learning about the stations and types of research being conducted.
Cost
Australia dedicates approximately $100 million per year to its Antarctic programme . Students can discuss whether they consider this to be money well spent.
Antarctic flags
At the geographic South Pole stands a ceremonial pole, striped red and white like a barbers pole with a metallic mirror ball on top. Around this pole fly the flags of many nations in a display of the international cooperation that characterises the Antarctic.
Antarctic stamps
Australia considers the AAT to be a distinct Australian territory, and production of AAT stamps helps to emphasise this claim.
This page was last modified on January 23, 2014.